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Propyl Ethanol IPA
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Isopropanol is an organic compound, an isomer of n-propanol, also known as dimethyl methanol and 2-propanol, and is also used as IPA in the industry. It is a colorless and transparent liquid with an odor like a mixture of ethanol and acetone. It is soluble in water, but also soluble in most organic solvents such as alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, etc. Isopropanol is an important chemical product and raw material. Mainly used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, plastics, fragrances, coatings, etc.
Isopropanol, commonly known as fire wine, is a colorless, flammable liquid with a strong odor at room temperature and pressure. Its molecular formula is C3H8O. Isopropanol is the simplest secondary alcohol and one of the isomers of propanol.
It has an odor similar to a mixture of ethanol and acetone. It has a slightly bitter taste and is flammable. It is miscible with water, ethanol, ether and chloroform, but insoluble in salt solution. It can form an azeotropic mixture with water (12.3% water content). Easy to generate peroxides. Low toxicity, LD50 (rat, oral) 2524mg/kg. High-concentration steam is narcotic and irritating.
Alias: dimethyl methanol; 2-propanol, English abbreviation: IPA
English product name: iso-Propyl alcohol; isopropanol; Dimethylcarbinol; 2-Propanol, commonly known as IPA
Molecular formula: C3H8O; (CH3) 2CHOH
Molecular weight: 60.06
It is the isomer of n-propanol CH3-CH2-CH2OH. Appearance and properties: Colorless transparent liquid, with an odor like a mixture of ethanol and acetone.
Melting point (℃): -88.5
Boiling point (℃): 82.3
Relative density (water=1): 0.79
Relative vapor density (air=1): 2.07
Saturated vapor pressure (kPa): 4.40 (20℃)
Heat of combustion (kJ/mol): 1984.7
Critical temperature (℃): 275.2
Critical pressure (MPa): 4.76
Log value of octanol/water partition coefficient: <0.28
Flash point (℃): 12
Ignition temperature (℃): 399
Upper explosion limit% (V/V): 12.7
Lower explosion limit %(V/V): 2.0
Solubility: soluble in most organic solvents such as water, alcohol, ether, benzene, chloroform, etc.
Main use: It is an important chemical product and raw material. Mainly used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, plastics, fragrances, coatings, etc.
CAS number: 67-63-0
MDL number: MFCD00011674
EINECS number: 200-661-7
RTECS number: NT8050000
BRN number: 635639
PubChem number: 24896158
1. It has a wide range of uses as organic raw materials and solvents. As a chemical raw material, it can produce acetone, hydrogen peroxide, methyl isobutyl ketone, diisobutyl ketone, isopropylamine, isopropyl ether, isopropanol ether, isopropyl chloride, as well as fatty acid isopropyl ester and chlorine Substitute fatty acid isopropyl ester and so on. In fine chemicals, it can be used to produce isopropyl nitrate, isopropyl xanthate, triisopropyl phosphite, aluminum triisopropoxide, and medicines and pesticides. As a solvent, it can be used to produce coatings, inks, extractants, aerosols, etc. It can also be used as antifreeze, detergent, additive for blending gasoline, dispersant for pigment production, fixative for printing and dyeing industry, antifogging agent for glass and transparent plastics, etc. Used as a diluent for adhesives, antifreeze, dehydrating agent, etc.
2. Reagents for determination of barium, calcium, copper, magnesium, nickel, potassium, sodium, strontium, nitrous acid, cobalt, etc. Chromatographic analysis standards. As a chemical raw material, it can produce acetone, hydrogen peroxide, methyl isobutyl ketone, diisobutyl ketone, isopropylamine, isopropyl ether, isopropanol ether, isopropyl chloride, as well as fatty acid isopropyl ester and chlorine Substitute fatty acid isopropyl ester and so on. In fine chemicals, it can be used to produce isopropyl nitrate, isopropyl xanthate, triisopropyl phosphite, aluminum triisopropoxide, and medicines and pesticides. As a solvent, it can be used to produce coatings, inks, extractants, aerosols, etc. It can also be used as antifreeze, detergent, additive for blending gasoline, dispersant for pigment production, fixative for printing and dyeing industry, antifogging agent for glass and transparent plastic, etc.
3. Used as a defoamer for water-based fracturing fluid in oil wells. Air forms an explosive mixture, which can cause combustion and explosion when exposed to open flames and high heat. It can react with oxidants. Its vapor is heavier than air and can spread to a relatively far place in a lower place, and it will ignite when it encounters a fire source. In case of high heat, the internal pressure of the container will increase and there is a danger of cracking and explosion.
4. Isopropanol is used as a cleaning and degreasing agent. MOS grade is mainly used for discrete devices and medium and large-scale integrated circuits, and BV-Ⅲ grade is mainly used for VLSI technology.
5. Used in the electronics industry as a cleaning and degreasing agent.
6. Used as a diluent for adhesives, an extractant for cottonseed oil, and a solvent for nitrocellulose, rubber, paint, shellac, alkaloids, grease, etc. Also used in antifreeze, dehydrating agent, preservative, antifogging agent, medicine, pesticide, perfume, printing industry, cosmetics and organic synthesis.
7. It is a relatively cheap solvent in industry, has a wide range of uses, can be freely mixed with water, and has a stronger solubility for lipophilic substances than ethanol.
8. Used in the production of diisoacetone, isopropyl acetate, thymol and gasoline additives.
9. It can be used for degreasing of animal-derived tissue membranes.
1. 2-Propanol can be produced by fermentation, and it takes 16 tons of grain to produce 1t 2-propanol. In industry, propylene hydration method was adopted, and sulfuric acid hydration method (also known as indirect hydration method) was adopted earlier; in 1951, the British Benemen Chemical Industry Company began to use propylene to directly hydrate 2-propanol. 1. Indirect hydration method The reaction of propylene and sulfuric acid first obtains isopropyl hydrogen sulfate, which is hydrolyzed to form isopropanol. 2. Direct hydration method Propylene and water are heated and pressurized in the presence of a catalyst to perform hydration reaction.
Process flow: (1) Indirect hydration method Feed the raw material gas containing more than 50% of propylene into the absorption tower, and perform absorption reaction with 75%-85% concentrated sulfuric acid at 50°C and low pressure to generate isopropyl hydrogen sulfate. After adding water to dilute the absorption liquid to a sulfuric acid content of 35%, the isopropyl hydrogen sulfate is hydrolyzed into isopropanol with low-pressure steam in the desorption tower. It is distilled to the azeotropic composition of isopropanol and water through the rough distillation tower, containing about 87% isopropanol. Then continue to use a distillation tower to distill to 95%, extract with benzene, separate the water, and then distill to obtain a finished product containing more than 99% of isopropanol.
The characteristic of this method is that the purity of propylene is not high, and the propylene conversion rate can reach 50%-60%, which can reduce the refining cost. However, the consumption of sulfuric acid is large, and there are problems of equipment corrosion and 40% waste concentrated sulfuric acid.
2. Direct water law
Propylene and water were pressurized to 1.96MPa and preheated to 200°C. After mixing, they were added to the reactor for hydration reaction. The reactor was equipped with a phosphate diatomaceous earth catalyst. The reaction temperature was 95°C, the pressure was 0.96MPa, and the water The molar ratio with propylene is 0.7:1, the single-pass conversion of propylene is 5.2%, and the selectivity is 99%. After the reaction gas is neutralized and heat exchanged, it is sent to the high-pressure cooler and high-pressure separator. The isopropanol in the gas phase is sprayed and recovered with deionized water in the recovery tower, and the unreacted gas is pressurized by the circulating compressor and then recycled ( Maintain 85% of the propylene content in the circulating system). The liquid phase is low-concentration isopropanol (15%-17%), and 85%-87% isopropanol aqueous solution is distilled through the rough distillation tower, and then concentrated to 95% through the distillation tower, and then concentrated by benzene extraction. 99% or more.
Compared with the propylene-sulfuric acid hydration method, this method does not use sulfuric acid, does not have the problem of corrosion equipment, and the process flow is simple; but the single-pass conversion rate of propylene is low, the propylene circulation volume is too large, and the raw material propylene purity is required to be 99.5%. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the direct hydration of propylene, 95% propylene is used as the raw material, the reaction temperature is 240-270°C, the reaction pressure is 14.7-19.6MPa, and the moles of water and propylene are excess water. The conversion rate of propylene is 60%-70%, the selectivity of isopropanol is 99%, the purity of isopropylene can be more than 99.9% after rectification, and the by-product is diisopropyl ether. In addition, the use of molecular sieve to catalyze the hydration of propylene to produce isopropanol is also a very promising improved process.
3. The raw gas containing more than 50% of propylene is subjected to absorption reaction with 75%-85% concentrated sulfuric acid at 50°C and low pressure to generate isopropyl hydrogen sulfate. The isopropyl hydrogen sulfate is then hydrolyzed to isopropanol. After rough steaming, it is concentrated to 95% with a distillation tower, then extracted with benzene, separated from water, and then distilled to obtain a finished product containing more than 99% isopropanol. Or pressurize propylene and water to 1.96MPa respectively, and preheat to 200°C, mix them and add them to the reactor for hydration reaction. The reaction gas is sent to the high-pressure cooler and high-pressure separator after neutralization and heat exchange. The isopropanol in the gas phase is sprayed and recovered with deionized water in the recovery tower, and it is distilled through the rough distillation tower to obtain 85% to 87% isopropyl alcohol. The aqueous alcohol solution is evaporated to 95% by distillation tower, and then extracted with benzene to obtain more than 99% isopropanol.
4. Using industrial product isopropanol as raw material, add 200g of fresh calcium oxide per liter of raw material, reflux, distill after a few hours to remove most of the water, and then add calcium hydride to the collected distillate. Barium oxide, calcium, anhydrous copper sulfate or 5A molecular sieve, fully shaken, stand for 48h, separate the solid desiccant and distill to obtain the pure product.
5. Take 95% propylene and excess water as raw materials, in the presence of a tungsten-based catalyst (such as tungsten silicate), at 240～270℃, 14.7～19.6MPa conditions:
The obtained isopropanol has a purity of over 99.9% after refining.
6. First, pressurize excess propylene and water to 2MPa respectively, and preheat to 200°C. Then mixed and sent to the reactor for reaction, the catalyst is diatomaceous earth phosphate. The reaction temperature is controlled at 195°C and the pressure is maintained at 2MPa. After the reaction is completed, the gas is first neutralized and then subjected to high-pressure cooling and condensation and gas-liquid separation. The unreacted gas can be recycled. The resulting liquid is crude isopropanol with a relatively low concentration. After the second distillation, the concentration can reach 95%, and then it can be enriched by benzene extraction to over 99%.
7. Hydrogenation of acetone to produce isopropanol. This method emerged after 2005, mainly due to the price inversion of acetone and isopropanol (traditionally, one of the consumer uses of isopropanol is dehydrogenation to acetone).
Disposal and storage
Operation precautions: Airtight operation, full ventilation. Operators must undergo special training and strictly abide by operating procedures. It is recommended that operators wear filter-type gas masks (half masks), safety glasses, anti-static overalls, and latex gloves.
Keep away from fire and heat sources, and smoking is strictly prohibited in the workplace. Use explosion-proof ventilation systems and equipment. Prevent the vapor from leaking into the air in the workplace. Avoid contact with oxidants, acids and halogens. When filling, the flow rate should be controlled, and there should be a grounding device to prevent the accumulation of static electricity. When handling, load and unload with care to prevent damage to packaging and containers. Equipped with corresponding types and quantities of fire-fighting equipment and leakage emergency treatment equipment. Empty containers may be harmful residues.
Storage precautions: Store in a cool, ventilated warehouse. Keep away from fire and heat sources. The storage temperature should not exceed 30℃. Keep the container tightly closed. It should be stored separately from oxidants, acids, halogens, etc., and avoid mixed storage. Use explosion-proof lighting and ventilation facilities. Prohibited use
Mechanical equipment and tools that are prone to sparks. The storage area should be equipped with leakage emergency treatment equipment and suitable storage materials.
Industrial use is mainly used in the electronic cleaning agent industry, mainly PCB circuit board cleaning, electronic component cleaning, silicon wafer polishing, solar cell and optical precision instrument cleaning. Among them, PCB circuit boards accounted for more weight, followed by cleaning of electronic components.
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